"Progress of Civilization," the Senate Pediment

The sculptural pediment over the Senate entrance on the U.S. Capitol's East Front is called "Progress of Civilization." In the center a figure of America stands with an eagle at her side and the sun at her back. On the right are figures of Native Americans and settlers, representing the early days of America; on the left, figures representing various occupations include a soldier, merchant, a schoolmaster and child, and a mechanic. The figures were designed by American sculptor Thomas Crawford (1814-1857) in Rome, Italy, in 1854. They were carved in marble at the Capitol in 1855-1859 and erected in 1863. The entire pediment is 80 feet long, its height at the center is approximately 12 feet, and the length of the sculpture is approximately 60 feet. Crawford also sculpted the Statue of Freedom atop the dome, the bronze Senate and House doors, and the figures of Justice and History above the Senate bronze doors.